During the design phase of a 70+ story Skyscraper, a world-class mixed-used development project, Stevenson Systems worked with a prominent architectural firm to perform preliminary area calculations and floor load-factor efficiency based on initial designs.
Stevenson Systems’ Space Analysis™ provided key insights into core, shell, and corridor modifications that increased the overall rentable area, improved the load-factor efficiency, and asset value.
Stevenson Systems provided the architect with load factors and rentable and occupiable space calculations for the tower, which facilitated marketing and lease negotiation activities. Stevenson Systems also delivered area calculations that solved the challenge of appropriately apportioning the shared services between the hotel, retail, and office use components throughout building, a critical component of managing and operating a complex asset over time.
Building with no recessed and/or projections, and no rentable mezzanine. In the case of an industrial building whose Exterior Walls consist of a single vertical plane with openings for personnel doors, truck doors and windows, the Gross Building Area shall be determined by:
Building with no recesses and/or projections. plus rentable mezzanine. In the case of an industrial building whose Exterior Walls consist of a single vertical plane with openings for personnel doors, truck doors and windows, and the interior of the building includes Rentable Mezzanine, the Gross Building Area shall be determined by:
Building with recesses such as an interior truck well recessed glass, and /or projections. with no rentable mezzanine. In the case of an industrial building one or more of whose Exterior Walls consist of two or more vertical planes as a result of the existence of :
Published in 1993 by the American Industrial Real Estate Association (AIR), it was the only measurement standard in the United States to address the measurement of lease space in industrial buildings until it was displaced by the publication of the BOMA Industrial Standard in 2004.
A portion of a building that adds a convenience for the occupants of a floor or building and that is not used exclusively by any one occupant.
The American Industrial Real Estate Association (AIR) founded in the United States in 1960 with a focus on industrial properties.
The major standards organization in the United States and publisher of the BOMA Standard, the NAHB Residential Standard, and ISO 9836 International Standard.
Any areas which are leased to, or by agreement are used exclusively by, an occupant in addition or surplus to the gross leasable areas defined in this standard as represented on the Global Summary of Areas. Ancillary space shall be designated for the occupant’s exclusive use (like GLA) but may not increase gross leasable area, exterior gross area or construction gross area that are defined in this standard.
Any use, other than the primary use of a building.
The BOMA publication of the 2010 Office Standard (ANSI/BOMA Z65-1-2010) "Office Buildings: Standard Methods of Measurement". This is the latest measurement standard publication for office buildings which first published in 1915.
The amount of space that is calculated from common areas within the building(s) and "apportioned" or distributed to each building, floor and tenant area.
A collection of drawings which includes all the information and instructions required to construct a structure, including dimensions, details, specifications. Architectural drawings may also refer to other specific sets of drawings and specification as part of the overall construction documentation (mechanical, Electrical, Structural, Civil, etc.).
Used in the measurement of a building or occupant space to identify the boundaries of a geometric space. A quantitative measurement determined by various boundaries expressed in square feet or square meters.
These are drawing(s) developed from dimensions acquired at the building or from occupant space. These drawings have limitations in that they are generated for dimensions of the buildings architectural elements (walls, windows, doors, stairs, bathrooms, etc.) that can be measure and do not account for the architectural elements that are hidden or not accessible. The drawing accuracy is also limited to the tolerances of the equipment used and the operator of the equipment. Laser technology it is now made possible to capture the as-built conditions with greater accuracy. These drawings are not architectural drawings and should not be confused with building calculations or measurement drawings. For the greatest accuracy, as-built drawings should be compared with and supplement with information found on the architectural drawings (drawings used to build the building or occupancy space). (See Record Drawings)
A Portion of the plannable area on a floor that can be assigned to occupants or functions.
Areas that are assigned or apportioned and often provide benefit to specific retail, store or office areas. When measured, these areas include their enclosing walls and may include; corridors, mechanical rooms, electrical and the like.
ASTM International, a U.S.-based organization that publishes the International Facility Management Association (IFMA) Standard.
A mezzanine that is adjacent to the exterior enclosure (Method A) or drip line (Method B) of a building.
For the purpose of these standards a balcony includes covered external galleries, and loggias.
A horizontal extension of an adjacent floor outside the exterior enclosure of a building that is not a roof, roof terrace, plaza or deck.
An external platform at an upper floor level with a balustrade to the open sides projecting from or recessed from an External Wall and including in this definition generally accessible rooftop terraces, external galleries and loggia.
A real estate term generally to mean a commercial structure without tenant improvements or what is the basic structure of a building without occupancy. Also commonly called "shell and core" (see Shell and Core)
The minimum path on a multi-occupant floor necessary for access to and egress from occupant areas, access stairs, escalators and elevators, restrooms, janitor’s closets and water coolers, required areas of refuge, life safety equipment (such as fire hose cabinets and fire extinguishers), and building service and amenity areas (such as building lobbies, building conference rooms, sky lobbies, and the like). Note that base building circulation may differ from actual corridors.
A floor of a building that has an elevation below that of the average adjacent grade plane by a distance of more than two thirds of the vertical dimension between the elevation of that floor level and the elevation of the floor immediately above it.
To determine the usable area of below grade, cellar and sub-cellar areas, follow the same procedures as are appropriate for single or multiple tenant floors except that the following additional areas should be deducted from usable area: -Machine rooms and pump rooms and their enclosing walls. -Electric switchgear rooms and their enclosing walls. -Telephone equipment rooms and their enclosing walls. -All space devoted to servicing the operation of the building, i.e., cleaning contractors, storage, building maintenance shop, building engineer’s office, etc.
Currently referring to one of the following measurement standards published by BOMA: ANSI/BOMA Z65.1-2010, OFFICE; ANSI/BOMA Z65.2-2012, INDUSTRIAL; ANSI/BOMA Z65.3-2009, GROSS; ANSI/BOMA Z65.4-2010, RESIDENTIAL; ANSI/BOMA Z65.5-2010, RETAIL; ANSI Z65.6-2012, MIXED-USE. BOMA first published a measurement standard in 1915.
A contiguous and undivided shelter comprising a partially or totally enclosed space, erected by means of a planned process of forming and combining materials.
An independent structure forming part of a Property.
A portion of a building that adds a convenience for all occupants of a building and that is not used exclusively by any one occupant. Examples include the following areas offered for shared use by all occupants of a building:
The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.
A local and state statute that governs the design and construction of buildings. (Note: In most jurisdictions, buildings must adhere to certain codes before they may be legally occupied.)
Fully-enclosed space within a building that benefits all occupants of that building but which does not accommodate tenant personnel, furniture, fixtures or equipment. The usual example is the first floor building entry lobby. May include additionally spaces like the building engineer’s office, building HVAC areas and loading docks. See individual measurement standards for definitions under the BOMA Standard.
The areas which are shared by and apportioned to all tenants in the building. May include the main lobby, mail room, building mechanical and electrical rooms, fire control rooms, communication rooms, pump rooms, loading docks and other building service areas.
The areas of the building that provide services to building tenants but which are not included in the office area or store area of any specific tenant. These areas may include, but shall not be limited to, main and auxiliary lobbies, atrium spaces at the level of the finished floor, concierge areas or security desks, conference rooms, lounges or vending areas, food service facilities, health or fitness centers, daycare facilities, locker or shower facilities, mail rooms, fire control rooms, fully enclosed courtyards outside the exterior walls, and building core and service areas such as fully enclosed mechanical or equipment rooms. Specifically excluded from Building Common Areas are Floor common Areas, parking space, portions of loading docks outside the building line, and Major Vertical Penetrations.
The Floor's portion of the Building Common areas, such as the main lobby, mail room, etc. Floor’s Building Common Share is equal to the total Building Common square footage multiplied by the floor net Rentable divided by the total building net Rentable)
Term used to describe Floor Common Area excluding corridors on multi-tenant floors. Service areas that are part of the basic functions of the building.
Term used to describe boundaries of the exterior walls of a building or structure when placed on a piece of property. It can also describe the boundaries of the roof or covered area of the roof structure if there are no walls surrounding a building or structure.
An enhancement to Computer Aided Design (CAD) that allows the construction of a virtual building in a computer and provides drawings with various degrees of intelligence. BIM modeling allow various disciplines of drawings to be developed within the same drawing. When complete, the computer is aware of the characteristics of the virtual building.
Commonly referred to as "Unenclosed Non-Rentable", the non-rentable and non-usable areas of the building not apportioned to all tenants. Can include basements, penthouse mechanical rooms and building service areas. Building Non-Use areas may be converted to Building Common.
A defined area of a building that includes the area adjacent to the elevators when entering or exiting on a particular floor.
Along with publishing multiple leading measurement standards, BOMA International is a primary source of information on building management and operations, development, leasing, building operating costs, energy consumption patterns, local and national building codes, legislation, occupancy statistics, technological developments and other industry trends.
A horizontal line forming a perimeter that encompasses all the constructed elements of a given floor of a building and other areas covered by a roof or a floor above. Nonstructural protrusions, including eaves, cornices, canopies, awnings, sills, ledges, casing, wainscoting, gutters, downspouts, signs, shutters, attached electrical or mechanical systems or decorative projections, are ignored.
The conversion factor that distributes the Building Common Area of a building.
Portions of a building that provide services that enable occupants to work in that building. These areas may include but are not limited to main & auxiliary lobbies, building corridors, mechanical rooms, equipment rooms, building electrical rooms, fire control rooms, loading docks, building storage, building offices, etc. Building Common (BOMA Office 1996) and Building Service (BOMA Office 2010) share the same description, however, the wall priority of Building Service changed in the BOMA 2010 standard.
The sum of building service areas and building amenity areas on a floor level.
A portion of a building that provides services that enables occupants to work in the building. These areas include, but are not limited to the following areas that serve the entire building:
The actual calculated area of Building Service Area that is apportioned or shared to a specific occupant or floor. When expressed as a percentage this is generally known as the Floor Service Load Factor or as the Floor R/U Ratio.
Software enabling computers to generate drawings with a higher degree of accuracy and efficiency.
Software that can contain some features of CAD with automated aspects of facility management. Most CAFM packages focus more on the data aspects of facility management.
An industrial property that consists of two or more physically separate industrial buildings with related ownership and occupying a single industrial site.
Refers to a space or area with a building that serves two or more buildings within a Campus and is not used exclusively by any one occupant.
Fully-enclosed space in a group of buildings that benefits all the occupants of that group of buildings without being used exclusively by any one occupant. An example might be a HVAC plant that heats and cools all buildings, or a cafeteria or auditorium shared by occupants of a group of buildings.
When multiple buildings share common service areas within a Campus the apportionments of the common services are expressed through a factor or R/U ratio for the Campus which is added to the other R/U ratio to determine the total Rentable Area of each tenant or occupier with in a building . (Also referred to as a Floor R/U Ratio or Multi-building R/U Ratio, Building R/U Ratio, and Multi floor R/U Ratio)
The lesser of the market load factor and the load factor A (if using Method A) or the load factor B (if using Method B) on each floor level of a building.
The product of the capped load factor and the occupant area on each floor level of a building.
An internal or external walkway above the surrounding area that is used to provide access or allow workers to stand or move.
A line connecting points that are equidistant between both base-building finished surfaces of a wall, not taking into account special finishes for adjacent occupants or furring or chases to accommodate pipes, wiring or equipment that serve adjacent occupants.
A change in construction instructions sometimes located on the architectural drawings that indicates alterations of dimensions or materials issued after a final construction document are issued or during construction that may have an impact on floor area and costs.
A system for allocating total occupancy costs to individual company departments, divisions or other groups based upon the square footage they occupy and their actual costs.
Corridors, aisles and other similar space required for occupants to move within the building. Circulation may be classified as primary, secondary or tertiary. It may also be part of the area.
The actual surface areas of floors square footage of (office, corridors, bathrooms, and the like) that require cleaning in order to maintain sanitary conditions and good appearance. May or may not have any other relationship to other square footage measurements of floor area used in leasing.
The maximum height within a building or section of a building measured to the lowest point of the roof structural element or building equipment such as ducting, gantries, pipework, sprinklers and the like.
The rate of change in the size or length of a building component or a measuring device caused by a given change in temperature. A steel building 200' long without expansion joints will be 5/8 inch bigger at 75 degrees Fahrenheit than it is at 35 degrees. A steel measuring tape likewise changes length with temperature change.
The areas within the exterior gross area of a retail building that are not designed for rental to occupants, but that are available for common use and support by and for all occupants, groups of occupants, or their invitees. Common areas include, but are not limited to : -Mall concourses -Public toilets -Service areas and corridors -Stairs, escalators, elevators -Truck loading and receiving -Trash staging and dumpsters -Common service facilities (mechanical, electrical, plumbing, communications fire protection, etc.) -Property management & maintenance facilities.
In Common Interest Communities, any elements that are not part of the Units. This may include exterior elements in addition to enclosed spaces, and encompasses both General Common Elements and Limited Common elements.
Those parts of a Building providing shared facilities that typically do not change over time, including, for example, circulation areas, stairs, escalators, lifts/elevators and motor rooms, toilets, cleaners’ cupboards, plant rooms, fire refuge areas, maintenance rooms and unallocated parking spaces.
A form of real property ownership that includes condominiums, cooperatives and planned communities that may be regulated by state statutes such as condominium acts or common interest ownership acts, some of which contain explicit definitions of unit boundaries that are relevant to the measurement of their floor areas.
Common Interest Ownership Acts are state statutes that govern Common Interest Communities and may contain explicit definitions of unit boundaries that are relevant to the measurement of their floor areas.
The areas which are shared or used by multiple buildings within a complex of buildings. The areas shared may include loading docks, engineer’s office, central mechanical and electrical plants (central plant), etc.
That portion of the Complex Common Area apportioned to each building within a complex of buildings that share the common area being apportioned (central plan, engineers office, etc.).
Portion of a building complex or campus that provides services that enables occupants to work in one or more buildings within the complex or campus. These areas may include but are not limited to loading docks, engineer’s office, central mechanical and electrical plants (central plant), etc.
One of the main elements into which the Floor Area of a Building can be divided.
The total Floor Area attributed to one of the Components.
With the update of tenant improvement drawings, confirm (finalize) the square footage of the Rentable and Usable areas of the updated suite(s) and produce and issue a “Composite Drawing” that shows all the final or confirmed tenant suites on a floor.
The creation and distribution of various types of electronic information within a computer file structure
A covered or enclosed bridge, walkway, tunnel or other similar connecting element between two separate buildings.
This method of measurement is to be used primarily to determine building cost or value and is not used for leasing purposes except where an entire building is leased to a single tenant.
Collectively, the drawings, specifications, general conditions, addenda and instructions that are used to construct, bid or finance a building. May contain all or part of the following drawings (Architectural, Mechanicals, Structural, Civil, Electrical, Plumbing, Etc.) Also see architectural drawings. (Note: Commonly referred to as "CD's")
(See Working Drawings or Construction Documents)
The larger measure of the two gross areas, it includes the area defined as exterior gross area as well as other areas that have a structural floor, or are covered by a roof or canopy, that are typically unenclosed but within the building perimeter. It may be an appropriate measure of area upon which to base an estimated construction cost or for valuation using the replacement value approach of appraisal. Accurate construction cost estimating and replacement cost valuation should consider fully enclosed and finished space differently than unenclosed space, applying unit costs appropriate to various types of space.
The total of all the horizontal floor areas (as viewed on a floor plan) of all floors of a building contained within their building perimeters excluding voids (except for occupant voids), interstitial space, roofs, unexcavated areas, crawl spaces, un-structured on-grade parking and other site improvements. Make no deductions for columns or any structural elements within the building perimeter.
The amount of Rent that is generated is generally determined by the Rentable Area of a floor or tenants space. The Rentable Area of a floor or tenants space is determined by the use of a factor system, which when multiplied times the Usable Area determines the Rentable Area. The following factor systems are available to use, however only one factor system can be used on a building at one time. (Also see Factor)
Includes the public corridor areas on each floor that connect the tenant spaces with the stairs and elevators.
A portion of occupant area that is located outside the physical enclosing walls of an occupant’s premises and between it and the hypothetical or multi-occupant corridor. The corridor extension may not be permanent and may change as the number of occupants on a floor changes. The area occupied by a door setback is included in the adjacent area it serves and may not be a part of the corridor, see definition for Door Setback.
With the establishment of the Optimum Corridor any change made to the corridor that extends the corridor beyond the Optimum in length or width, “Corridor Extension” will be apportioned to the tenant or tenants that use or caused the Corridor Extension. This Corridor Extension will remain as Usable area of the tenant(s) that use it and has no effect on the load factors or total rentable area of a floor.
Any part of any corridor that extends beyond the minimum or optimum corridor established. Corridor extensions may fluctuate to satisfy the different requirements of tenant access and building code requirements. In most cases, the area is apportioned as Usable Area to those specific tenants causing the extension.
The Extent at ground level of the area of a Building covered by one or more roofs, the perimeter of which (sometimes referred to as the drip line) is the outermost structural extension, exclusive of ornamental overhangs.
The Rentable Area currently assigned to a tenant as it appears on the current lease agreement. The Current Leased area may or may not be the actual Rentable Area of the space.
An unenclosed floor surface contiguous to a building that is suitable for use by an occupant and supported above the ground on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure, and/or posts, piers or other independent supports.
An interior wall dividing one occupant from an adjacent occupant on the same floor or mezzanine.
A “Demising Wall” is any interior wall dividing one separately leased or occupied portion of a building from another.
An interior wall that separates one tenant’s Usable Area from the adjacent tenant’s Usable Area. Can also be used to describe any wall that separates two different classes of interior space, such as Usable Area and Common Areas.
The portion of the inside finished surface of the permanent outer 2) building wall which is 50% or more of the vertical floor-to-ceiling dimension measured at the dominant portion. If there is no dominant portion, or if the dominant portion is not vertical, the measurement for area shall be to the inside finished surface of the permanent outer building wall where it intersects the finished floor.
The “Dominant Portion” shall mean that portion of the Exterior Surface within any one vertical plane which is both (i) structural in character and (ii) whose total surface area contains the highest percentage of the total Exterior Surface area of that one Exterior Wall. By way of illustration: (i) if 60% of the Exterior Surface of one Exterior Wall of a building consists of recessed glass storefront falling within a first vertical plane; and (ii) 10% of the same Exterior Surface is structural in character falling within a second vertical plane; and (iii) 30% of the same Exterior Surface is structural in character and falls within a third vertical plane, the 30% of the Exterior Surface which is structural would be the Dominant Portion for the purpose of determining the Exterior Dimensions.
A line on the ground, a plaza, roof terrace or balcony in the same vertical plane as the outside edge of a roof or overhang that occurs at the level of the floor or roof of a floor level immediately above.
That line on or beyond the outside surface of the exterior enclosure of a building lying within the same vertical plane as the outside edge of an overhang or perimeter portion of the building roof system.
A projection that may be beyond the exterior walls of a building that represented the furthest outward projection of the building. Usually determined by floors or projections above the first floor or projected roof structure.
The total of all the horizontal floor areas (as viewed on a floor plan) of all floors of a building contained within their drip lines, excluding voids (with the exception of occupant voids), interstitial space, unexcavated space and crawl space. Make no deductions for columns or any structural elements within the drip line.
A method of measuring Industrial Space defined in the BOMA Industrial Standard.
Space required for the passage of a minor building element occupying less than 4 square feet (0.37 square meter) that serves a particular use component of a mixed-use property but passes through another use component of the mixed-use property, for which no deduction is taken. Columns and projections necessary to a building are considered to be easements regardless of their size.
Efficiency of a building or floor is its Usable Area divided by its Rentable Area, or the inverse of the R/U Ratio.
Building Efficiency = Total Rentable Area / Total Gross Area Floor Efficiency = Floor Rentable Area / Floor Gross Area.
It is a percentage that represents the inverse of a Floating, Flat or Arbitrary Factor. It represents how much of my Rentable Area is Usable Area.
Includes all areas the are related to the electrical operations of the building including electrical rooms, switch gear rooms, etc.
The space where a elevator travels through a floor of a building and the walls that enclose the hole where it travels. Generally the space where the elevator travels is excluded as part of the Usable or Rentable area of a building. (See Major Vertical Penetration)
To separate the inside of a building from the outside, affording protection from the elements appropriate to the occupancy and the local climate.
Enclosed areas that are for the use, accessed by and maintained for the benefit of the occupants that are not recognized as Rentable Area. These areas may include but are not limited to overhangs, structured parking, occupant storage, crawl space, trapped areas, low headroom areas, interstitial space, etc.
A limit up to which an occupant has the right to build an exterior enclosure at a public pedestrian thoroughfare, as established by a contract, an agreement or a statutory constraint, or by a physical building element such as a change in floor elevation, a fascia, or a column face.
Expressed as a percentage equal to a Tenant's Rentable Area divided by the Total Rentable Area of the building.
Identifies the corridor configuration constructed on a specific floor of a building at a specific date.
A portion of occupant area that is located outside the physical enclosing walls of an occupant’s premises and between it and the base building circulation (in Method B) or a multi-occupant corridor (in Method A).(Also see Corridor Extension)
The dimensions of a building determined by measuring the distances around the Exterior Surface of the Exterior Walls, based on the Dominant Portion of each Exterior Walls. OR, in the case of a buildings being connected by a common wall shall be measured to the center line of any connecting walls (Demising Wall) separating one Building from another.
The wall, roof or soffit that constitutes the envelope necessary to enclose a building.
The total of all the enclosed floor areas (as viewed on a floor plan) of all floors of a building contained within their measure lines, excluding voids (with the exception of occupant voids), interstitial space, unexcavated space and crawl space. No deductions are recognized for columns or any structural elements within the measure line.
The total floor area contained within the measure line (generally, the outside surface of the exterior enclosure of a building) including structured parking. Typically, unenclosed areas are excluded except for external circulation and the top level of a parking structure. It may be an appropriate measure of area for use in planning and design of buildings with respect to zoning floor area ratios (FAR), for real estate tax assessment purposes for some occupancies, for valuation using income or comparable value approaches, or for determining a lease rate when a building is leased to a single tenant.
The total of all the horizontal floor areas (as viewed on a floor plan) of all floors of a building contained within their measure lines, excluding voids (with the exception of occupant voids), interstitial space, unexcavated space and crawl space. Make no deductions for columns or any structural elements within the measure line.
The “Exterior Surface” refers to the outside surface of any structural or non-structural component of an Exterior Wall falling within a given vertical plane in any one Exterior Wall. Windows and doors mounted in an Exterior Wall shall be deemed to be in the same vertical plane as the Exterior Wall so long as their thickness lies within the thickness of the Exterior Wall, or so long as they are mounted directly to the interior surface or Exterior Surface of the Exterior Wall.
The “Exterior Wall” refers to the outermost structural wall, including its non-structural components, which forms the external perimeter of a building.
Unenclosed pedestrian circulation providing the minimum path for access to tenant suites, egress stairs, elevators, refuge areas, toilets, and building entrances, and required by local building code to meet egress requirements, only when there are no fully enclosed pedestrian corridors serving a floor or portion (such as a wing) thereof.
Unenclosed pedestrian circulation that functions as a multi-occupant corridor, only when there are no pedestrian corridors within the exterior enclosure that provide access to and egress from occupant suites on a floor level or portion (such as a wing) thereof.
The enclosing element of a Building, including windows and walls that separates the exterior area from the interior area.
When a Factor system is used, each floor of the building may have a different factor based on the common areas apportioned to each floor and size of the floor. (Also see R/U Ratio)
Common term used in the commercial real estate industry to communicate a building, tenant or floor factor. A factor (expressed as 1.0000) that when multiplied times the Usable square footage of and area determines the Rentable square footage. (See Load Factor)
A common term to mean the amount of area "added on" to a tenant space to create the Rentable area. Also know as a R/U ratio. Tenant Usable Area multiplied by the Tenant "Add On" Factor = Rentable Area
This is a factor that represents a single factor assigned to all floors of a building. This factor is usually based on market conditions and therefore the name Market or Arbitrary Factor. When the Market or Arbitrary Factor is used, a single factor assigned all floors of the entire building and general applied to the multi-tenant Usable area of each floor. The Market or Arbitrary Factor is usually lower than the true factor generated from actual square footage calculations. This system is of using Market or Arbitrary Factors has no relationship to the true factor(s) or the true Rentable Areas. The Arbitrary or Market Factors is established as follows: Tenant Factor Tenant Conversion Factor (Arbitrary) is equal to Usable Area (multi-tenant) of a floor multiplied by the Arbitrary Conversion Factor which is equal to the Rentable Area. Example the true Floating factor may be 1.1923 while the Arbitrary or Market factor is set at 1.1200 Factor
When the Average Factor system is used, there is a single factor "averaged" throughout the building. This factor is established based on multi-tenant Usable areas within the entire building. This factor is based on the total common areas apportioned within the entire building. The Average Factor is established as follows: Tenant Factor Tenant Conversion Factor (Flat) is equal to the Total Building Rentable Area divided by the Total Building Usable Area Usable Area (multi-tenant) of a floor multiplied by the Tenant Conversion Factor equal to the Rentable Area. Example: 120,000 rsf / 105,000 usf = 1.1428 Factor
Used in conjunction with a Space Requirements Projection studies. This is an allowance given to Secondary Circulation applied to Assignable Area to determine required Usable Area. For example, if 25% of the Usable area is expected to be Secondary Circulation, the multiplier applied to Assignable Area should be 1.33, not 1.25.
Once the Load Factor on a floor has been established it is “fixed” (not to change). The Rentable square footage therefore changes up or down based on the change to the Optimum Corridor and Usable area. With the Rentable square footage changes to compensate for the changes in Usable area, the Load Factor of the floor will be maintained at a fixed percentage.
This is a factor that represents the total amount of Floor Common, Multi-Floor Common and Building Common Areas equally apportioned to all floors of similar office type regardless of their size or design.
Is a single average factor system establishing one factor for all floor of the building based on a multi-tenant occupancy. This Flat or Average Factor is calculated using the average of the Floating Factor of the building. The factor is calculated as follows: Flat Building Factor = Total Rentable Area of Building / Total Usable Area of Building
The Floating Factor System establishes for each floor a specific factor based on the common or service area apportionment that actually serve that floor. This factor may vary for each floor of a building depending on its size and design. The Factors are calculated as follows: Floor Factor (Add-On) (Floor Factor = Net Rentable Area / Usable Area) Usable Area multiplied by the Floor Conversion Factor = Net Rentable Area Tenant Factor (Add-On) (Tenant Factors = Rentable Area / Usable Area) Usable Area multiplied by the Tenant Conversion Factor = Rentable Area
This is a factor that represents the total amount of Floor Common Area apportioned to a floor or tenant of similar office types.
Usable Area multiplied by the Floor Conversion Factor equals Net Rentable Area
Alternative method to express a factor. Sometimes called an Efficiency Factor. It is the inverse of the BOMA R/U Ratio (Rentable divided by the Usable), it is the (Usable Area divided by the Rentable Area) and then the number is subtracted from one. A Loss Factor or Efficiency Factor is not recognized by BOMA as a factor however, is used in some parts of the world to calculate the Rentable Area. Note the a loss factor cannot be used to generate a Rentable area of a building.
A factor that is generally less that the calculated factors based on a R/U Ratio and is established based on an acceptable Factor number within the market where a building is located.
This is a factor that represents the total amount of Floor Common, Multi-Floor Common and Building Common Areas apportioned to a floor or tenant of similar office types.
The existing present condition and location of the architectural features and components of a building including, but not limited to rooms, walls, windows, doors, fixtures, etc.
Dimensions acquired from on-site measurements of a building using various measurement devices. Field dimensions are usually made to measureable building elements and often differ from the construction documents used to construct the building.
The method by which a building or property is physically measured, inventoried and examined. The equipment and techniques used may vary depending on the personnel, training and the degree of accuracy required. The results may also vary with techniques, equipment and requirements.
Developed to the extent of the addition of the following improvements or at least incorporating other similar improvements:
Any portion of a mezzanine which is finished.
A wall, ceiling or floor surface, including glass, as prepared for tenant use, excluding the thickness of any special surfacing materials such as paneling, furring strips and carpet.
The face of a wall, window, ceiling or floor that is provided as part of the base building for the general use of occupants, excluding the thickness of any special surfacing materials applied to meet the particular needs of specific occupants.
The wall surface directly above the horizontal wall-floor junction, ignoring skirting boards, cable trunking, heating and cooling units, and pipework.
Space in a building designed to accommodate industrial, office or retail use, or any mixture (including 100% of any one) of those uses.
Space with attributes suitable for occupancy either by offices or light industrial/warehouse operations. Such space might be measured for leasing employing either an office or industrial measurement standard at the option of the owner/landlord.
A normally horizontal, load-bearing structure constituting the bottom level of each story in a building including its associated permanent mezzanine, if any exists.
A normally horizontal, load bearing structure and constituting the bottom surface of each floor level (story) in a building.
A normally horizontal, load bearing structure and constituting the bottom level of each story in a building including its associated mezzanine(s), if any exists.
Portion of a floor that adds a convenience for all occupants of the floor and that is not used exclusively by any one occupant.
The area of a normally horizontal, permanent, load-bearing structure for each level of a building.
Generally the ratio of the Gross Area of a building to the Gross Area of the land upon which the building is situated. Used in associated or conjunction with zoning. Depending on the local municipality FAR's may vary in definition and calculated area
Shall mean the areas on a floor such as washrooms, janitorial closets, electrical rooms, telephone rooms, mechanical rooms, elevator lobbies and public corridors which are available primarily for the use of tenants on that floor.
Fully-enclosed space on a floor that benefits all occupants of that floor but does not accommodate the tenant's personnel, furniture, fixtures and equipment. The usual examples are toilets, janitor’s closets, electrical closets and HVAC equipment rooms serving only the floor upon which they are located. See individual standards for detailed descriptions.
The areas which are shared by and apportioned to all tenants on a particular floor. May include the elevator lobby, common corridors, restrooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, and floor service areas.
The term that has become generic to represent areas that are of common use to a floor. Identified in the 1996 BOMA Office Standard (ANSI/BOMA Z65.1-1996); Floor Common: Areas on a floor such as washrooms, janitorial closets, electrical rooms, telephone rooms, mechanical rooms, elevator lobbies, and public corridors which are available primarily for the use of tenants on that floor. In the most recent 2010 BOMA Office Standard (ANSI/BOMA Z65.1-2010) the term Floor Common was renamed “Floor Service & Amenity Area”. This term is used to describe rooms or areas that provide service or amenity to a single floor. A “Floor Service Share” is referring to the allocation of “Floor Service” area to the occupants of that floor
Composite for each floor identifying all the suite(s) on the floor and showing the interior partition location.
The non-rentable and non-usable areas on the floor that are not apportioned to tenants on any floor(s) of the building. Commonly includes void spaces, service areas, and mechanical rooms and the like that are not included within the Usable or Rentable area of the building under the current measurement criteria or standard. These areas or spaces are measured and identified and included as part of the measurement report Floor Non-Use areas may be converted to Building, Floor or Multi-Floor Common areas. in the future if the measurement criteria is changed or different standard of measurement us used.
Are major holes in the floor(s) of the building where there is no floor. May include stairs, shafts, flues, major pipe shafts, vertical ducts, and the like, which penetrate more than one floor. Does not include stairs, dumb-waiters, etc., exclusively serving a single tenant occupying offices on more than one floor. These penetration may or may not include their enclosing walls depending on the measurement standard used or the type of penetration.
A floor opening in excess of (1)square foot (0.1 square meter) that serves vertical building systems or vertical occupant circulation functions. Floor penetrations include stairs, elevators shafts, flues, pipe shafts, vertical ventilation ducts and their enclosing walls. Floor openings between two or more floors that are removed or controlled exclusively by a single occupant are included in the occupant area of that occupant and referred to as Occupant Voids. Occupant Voids may include but are not limited to private stairs, private elevators, dumbwaiters, exhaust shafts, etc.
Usually represents a two dimension graphic representation of a single floor of a building. May include the walls and doors that represent the building and/or interior improvements. Can be part of the working drawings, space plan or "core and shell" background drawings. Produced along with the architectural drawings of the building.
(Method A only) A ratio, the numerator of which is the preliminary floor area of a floor, and the denominator of which is the usable area of that floor, that distributes floor service areas to the occupants on a floor on a proportional basis.
Shall mean the conversion factor that, when applied to USABLE AREA, gives the BASIC RENTABLE AREA of the OFFICE AREA. STORE AREA or BUILDING COMMON AREA.
(Method A only) the sum of floor service area and floor amenity area of a given floor level.
Portion of a specific floor that provides services that enable occupants to work on that floor. Examples of floor service areas include the following areas that primarily service only the floor upon which they are located; Restrooms, Janitorial closets, Electrical and telephone closets, Mechanical room. On an upper level multi-occupant floor, the elevator lobby and the multi-occupant corridor. On an entry level floor level, the public corridor (if any) in addition to building service area providing access and egress for multiple occupants.
Portion of a specific floor that provides services that enable occupants to work on that floor. Examples of floor service areas include the following areas that primarily service only the floor upon which they are located; Restrooms, Janitorial closets. Electrical and telephone closets, Mechanical rooms. On an upper level multi-occupant floor, the elevator lobby and the multi-occupant corridor (Method A only). On an entry level floor, the public corridor (if any) in addition to building service area providing access and egress for multiple occupants (Method A only). In Method B, the elevator lobby and multi-occupant corridor areas are called base building circulation and extended circulation.
A term used by the Stevenson Standard and Washington Standard to describe the Floor Common Areas in the BOMA Standard 1996. Examples include toilets, janitor, phone and electrical closets and mechanical rooms and their enclosing walls. May or may not include corridors of a floor depending on occupancy.
The actual calculated area that is apportioned or shared to a specific occupant or floor. When expressed as a percentage this is known as the Floor Load Factor or as the Floor R/U Ratio.
Portion of a specific floor that provides services that enable occupants to work on that floor. These areas may include but are not limited to restrooms, janitorial closets, electrical and telephone closets, mechanical rooms, elevator lobby, public corridor, etc. In the BOMA 1996 Standard, Floor Service Area, together with Floor Amenity Area, was called Floor Common Area. The names of these areas were changed in the BOMA 2010 Standard to Floor Services Areas.
In enclosed malls, an area devoted to permanent food vendor stalls offering a range of prepared foods for on-premises consumption and served by a common, shared seating area.
The “Footprint” of a building is the area of land occupied by a building, or portion of a larger building, calculated based on its Exterior Dimensions. For example, a building with Exterior Dimensions of 100 ft. X 200 ft. has a Footprint of 20,000 s.f. A Mezzanine (whether Finished or Storage Mezzanine) is never included in the building Footprint under any circumstances.
A floor not including any mezzanine that may be associated with it.
(Method B only) a ratio, the numerator of which is the rentable area of a floor level and the denominator of which is the full floor occupant area of the floor level.
(Method B only) the sum of the areas of base building circulation of a floor level and the occupant area of that floor level.
Strips of wood or metal attached to a wall or other surfaces to provide a level attachment surface for other finished material such as wood paneling, drywall, stone, etc. If furring is attached to a permanent building structure, as a concrete wall or column, it is ignored when measurements are taken of the building and will not change he calculated areas.
A common term to mean the line determined by glass along the perimeter of a building. Glass line depending on the measurement standard used can determine the boundary of the measured area of a building.
Agreements (or proposed agreements), whether legally filed or not, which describe the management and/or ownership of an industrial campus or the rights and obligations of its owner(s) and occupants.
The total enclosed area of a floor or building measured to the inside surface of the permanent exterior walls of the building or structure or to a predetermined surface, or plane as in the case of overhangs and projections to the outside surface of the building. Gross Area may include areas above, below, or outside boundaries of the building in the case of central plants, parking structures and other structures separated from the main building that are used by the main building. This area may include areas as penthouse mechanical rooms, basement services, exterior corridors, tunnels, balconies, overhangs, central plants, mechanical within the parking structure, or other buildings separated from the main building but used by the main building.
Generic term, usually to mean the total of all enclosed floor areas of a building, including basements, measured to the outside face of enclosing walls.
A term used by federal agencies to measure multi-family properties. Also used in reference to industrial buildings. Similar to Gross Area.
The total enclosed area of a floor or building measured to the outside surface of the permanent exterior walls of the building or structure or to a predetermined surface, or plane as in the case of overhangs and projections to the outside surface of the building. Gross Construction Area may include areas above, below, or outside boundaries of the building. This area may include other structures separated from the main building that are used by the main building such as the buildings central plant, parking structures, etc. This area may include areas such as penthouse mechanical rooms, basement services, exterior corridors, tunnels, balconies, overhangs, etc. Gross Construction Area is not to be used as Rentable Area except where an entire building is lease by a single occupant.
It includes the area defined as BOMA's "exterior gross area" as well as other areas that have a structural floor, or are covered by a roof or canopy, that are typically unenclosed but within the building perimeter. It may be an appropriate measure of area upon which to base an estimated construction cost or for valuation using the replacement value approach of appraisal. Accurate construction cost estimating and replacement cost valuation should consider fully enclosed and finished space differently than unenclosed space, applying unit costs appropriate to various types of space.
The total of all the horizontal floor areas (as viewed on a floor plan) of all floors of a building contained within their building perimeters excluding voids (except for occupant voids), interstitial space, roofs, unexcavated areas, crawl spaces, un-structured on-grade parking and other site improvements. Make no deductions for columns or any structural elements within the building perimeter.
The total floor area contained within the measure line (generally, the outside surface of the exterior enclosure of a building) including structured parking. Typically, unenclosed areas are excluded except for external circulation and the top level of a parking structure. It may be an appropriate measure of area for use in planning and design of buildings with respect to zoning floor area ratios (FAR ), for real estate tax assessment purposes for some occupancies, for valuation using income or comparable value approaches, or for determining a lease rate when a building is leased to a single tenant.
A term used to expresses the Gross Area of a floor less the area occupied by the thickness of the exterior walls.
The area, measured in a horizontal plane, of a floor level of a building that is circumscribed by the (BOMA IGA) boundary, without deductions for columns or projections necessary to the building.
The “Gross Building Area” of a building is the total area comprised of the building’s Footprint plus Rentable Mezzanine, based on Exterior Dimensions. If the Rentable Mezzanine includes any Storage Mezzanine area: 1. The exact square footage of the Storage Mezzanine area to be included must be clearly identified; AND 2. It must be clearly stated that the Storage Mezzanine area so identified is included as Rentable Mezzanine in the Gross Building Area.
This area is computed by measuring to the outside finish surface of permanent outer building walls, without deductions. All enclosed floor of the building, including basements, garages, mechanical equipment floors, penthouses, and the like , are calculated. Some time called "construction area".
Term used in retail leasing. It is generally the floor area available for the exclusive use of a retail tenant measured to the outside face of exterior walls and the centerline of demising walls separating tenants. Includes basements and mezzanines.
The total enclosed floor area designed for the exclusive use of an occupant, including any basements, mezzanines, or upper floors. For each occupant, it is generally measured from the centerline of partitions that separate adjacent occupants, from the measure line on the exterior surface of exterior enclosures, from the lease line at common areas, and includes the full thickness of all other enclosing walls. No deduction is made for columns, any structural elements or occupant voids are within BOMA OFFICE GLA.
A term used by residential appraisers, municipalities and some developers to describe finished, above-grade residential space measured to the outside face of exterior enclosing walls. Also referred to as Residential Living Area in the 1995 version of the AIA D-101 Standard.
The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts. NPFA-101 has a different definition and some local building codes also depart from this measure in some respects.
Is the total of all floor areas of a building measured to the Dominant Surface of enclosing walls, including basements and Major Vertical Penetrations.
Shall mean the total area of a building enclosed by the "Dominant Portion", Excluding parking areas and loading docks (or portions of same) outside the building line. It is generally not used for leasing purposes and calculated on a floor by floor bases.
A Canadian term for applying an R/U Ratio to Usable Area to determine Rentable Area. It is not defined by the BOMA Standard and is not to be confused with the Grossing Up of variable operating expenses as defined by the BOMA Escalation Handbook for Office Buildings.
The Greater Washington Commercial Association of Realtors.
The Standard Method of Measurement, A Formula for Calculating Rentable Office and Retail Space, published by the GWCAR and used only in the District of Columbia and nearby areas of Virginia and Maryland.
In multi-story common interest communities, a plane of elevation relative to an established benchmark that defines either an upper or a lower boundary of a unit.
A corridor established mathematically as a minimum path configuration on a multi-occupant floor necessary for access to and egress from occupant areas, access stairs, escalators and elevators. The corridor widths can have a major impact on building numbers and should always be considered. Base building circulation does not have to provide access to infrequently accessed service areas. When a constructed corridor does not exist a Hypothetical or Optimum Corridor may be created mathematically. See Base Building Circulation.
Published under the title “The Standard Classification for Building Floor Area Measurements for Facility Management."
A line that constitutes the perimeter of the Interior Gross Area (IGA) of a floor level. It determines the value of the interior gross area of a floor level and is located at the innermost occurrence of any of the following IGA boundary conditions:
At above-grade level, the edge of the walking surface, limited to the width required for access to and egress from occupant suites, typically five to six feet.
At grade level, a vertical projection of the edge floor level or roof above, and/or limited to the width required for access to and egress from occupant suites, typically five to six feet.
Relating to industry, which is the gainful activity involved in producing, distributing and changing the form of raw materials, or of assembling components and parts, packing, warehousing, and transporting finished products. Examples of industrial buildings include; Warehouses, Storage buildings, Distribution centers, Factories (manufacturing & assembly), Laboratories, Data centers, Flex space, Maintenance buildings, Utility plants.
A type of building typically used to house equipment and personnel for distributing and changing the form of raw materials or of assembling components and parts, packaging, warehousing and transporting finished products. In recent years has referred to a style of building. Some industrial style buildings are leased as office buildings.
A Building predominantly used for industrial purposes whether or not part of the building is used for ancillary purposes.
Space suitable for industrial use, characterized by ceilings higher than 12 feet and interior finishes, HVAC, lighting and power unsuitable for office, institutional or retail occupancy.
A term used in the GWCAR Standard for the same purpose as Gross Measured Area (GMA) in the BOMA Standard.
A property that consists of two or more buildings that have one or more floors that are shared among the buildings, or are closely integrated and share significant building service and amenity areas.
Fully-enclosed space on a floor that benefits all occupants on multiple floors without being used exclusively by any one occupant. A common example is an HVAC equipment room that serves the floor it is on and the floor immediately below it.
The area, measured in a horizontal plane, of a floor level of a building that is circumscribed by the IGA boundary, without deductions for columns or projections necessary to the building.
The inside finish surface comprising 50% or more of the surface area for each vertical section forming an internal perimeter. A vertical Section refers to each part of a window, wall or external construction feature of an office building where the outside finished surface varies from the inside finished surface area of the adjoining window, wall or external construction feature, ignoring the existence of any columns.
The inside finished surface comprising more than 50% of the floor to ceiling height for each IDF Wall Portion. If such does not occur, then the Finished Surface is deemed to be the IDF.
In May of 2013 with a meeting at the World Bank the Trustees of International Property Measurement Standards (IPMS) coalition was formed comprising of 56 organizations . The coalition also formed the independent Standards Setting Committee (SSC) coving 47 countries with technical experts from 11 countries.
The area of load bearing surfaces located above or below occupied building floors that is not available for general occupancy often due to inadequate clear headroom or lack of provisions for egress, and containing building structure or services predominantly serving adjacent floors or to provide access to such systems.
Load-bearing platforms between floors suitable for equipment and mechanical use but not for occupancy by personnel except for maintenance purposes. found most frequently in laboratory and medical building types. This is not the same as mezzanine space.
A measure of floor area that excludes the area taken up by exterior enclosing walls. Similar to Interior Gross Area.
International Property Measurement Standards (IPMS) A collection of measurement standards developed by the International Property Measurement Standards Coalition.
The sum of the areas of each floor level of a Building measured to the outer perimeter of external construction features and reported on a floor-by-floor basis.
The sum of the areas of each level of a Building measured to the Internal Dominant Face.
The sum of the areas of each floor level of an office Building measured to the Internal Dominant Face and reported on a Component-by-Component basis for each floor of a Building.
The sum of the areas of each floor level of a residential Building measured to the Internal Dominant Face.
The Floor Area available on an exclusive basis to an occupier.
The Floor Area available on an exclusive basis to an occupier.
The Floor Area available on an exclusive basis to an occupier, but excluding Standard Facilities, and calculated on an occupier-by- occupier or floor-by-floor basis for each building.
The Floor Area available on an exclusive basis to an occupier.
The International Property Measurement Standards Coalition (IPMSC) a group of 18 international real estate professional formed on May 30, 2013 to developed the International Property Measurement Standards (IPMS).
International Organization for Standardization - www.iso.ch located in Geneva, Switzerland. The US is represented at the ISO by ANSI, and ANSI distributes ISO standards in the US.
A widely used measurement standard in Europe, published by ISO and available through ANDSI, titled ISO 9836, “Performance Standards in Buildings – Definition and Calculation of Area and Space Indicators.”
A semi-movable structure or booth located in the common area of the mall that affords the occupant the ability to conduct business and where usually some construction is required to make it functional.
Generally consist of two major components, buildings and site improvements.
Measurement acquired through the use of laser technology, where upon distances measured are generally of greater accuracy than other methods, depending on the type, quality and operator of the laser.
This term is used in the real estate industry as the spaced "leased" and is generally used in retail buildings. This term is not defined by any published measurement standard. May include Rentable Area, Usable Area or Gross areas.
A legal agreement between a landlord and a tenant detailing the terms and conditions of occupancy; the rate, size and other information regarding the operation and maintenance of the leased area. Leases are generally accompanied by a calculation and drawing showing the space leased.
A review of a landlord's accounting practices, expense pass-throughs and Rentable area calculations under the terms of the lease by a lease auditor. Lease audits can lead to adjustments in the amount paid in rent and expenses by the landlord or the tenant.
A systems to manage the ongoing measurements and other lease information required by building owners to properly maintain the accounting of building and occupancies. First introduced to commercial real estate by Stevenson systems, Inc. in 1989. This system became a service to quickly responses to occupancy information, calculation changes and drawings as they occur. This system has become a widespread tool and service to assist building owners, property managers and asset managers in keep their occupancy information up-to-date throughout the life-cycle of their building(s).
A horizontal line forming a perimeter that encompasses all the constructed elements of a given occupant space. The lease line is normally the center line of any common party walls, the corridor face of any adjacent common corridor, or the exterior face of any walls that form the exterior enclosure, or the storefront lease line as defined by the landlord. If no specific dimensional definition is provided by the landlord, the storefront lease line shall be established by the leading edge of the neutral pier or mall bulkhead above. Non-structural protrusions, including eaves, cornices, canopies, awnings, sills, ledges, casing, wainscoting, gutters, downspouts, signs, shutters, attached electrical or mechanical systems or decorative projections, are ignored.
A term used to illustrate a spaces that is available to be lease or an area or space that is currently leased or occupied
The ability of a generally horizontal structure to support live loads imposed by occupants plus static loads imposed by furniture, equipment, machinery, partitions and the like on a surface designed for occupancy.
The ability of a structure to support live loads imposed by occupants plus dead loads imposed by furniture, equipment, machinery, and partitions.
Another term for the BOMA R/U Ratio that is not defined in the BOMA Standard.
In an industrial building containing multiple occupants, it is a fraction, the numerator of which is the rentable area of a floor and the numerator of which is the occupant area of that floor.
(Method A only) the product of the R/U ratio of a particular floor of level of a building and the R/O ratio of the building.
(Method B only) a ratio, the numerator of which is the building total preliminary floor area and the denominator of which is the building total occupant area.
Shall mean the conversion factor that distributes the Building Common Area of a building.
A Factor based on the pro-rata apportionment of Service/Common Area to Usable Area that services an occupant or floor of a building. Different geographic locations may refer to Load Factors as an Add On Factor or Gross Up Factor. Floor Service Load Factor: The calculated area of Floor Service that is apportioned to a specific occupant or floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. The BOMA 2010 Office Standard refers to this as the R/U Ratio. Building Service Load Factor: The calculated area of Building Service that is apportioned to a specific occupant or floor expressed as a percentage or ratio.
The BOMA 2010 Office Standard refers to this as the R/O Ratio. Multi-Floor Service Load Factor: The calculated area of Multi-Floor Service that is apportioned to a specific occupant or floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. Complex or Campus Service Load Factor: The calculated area of Complex or Campus Service that is apportioned to a specific occupant or floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. The BOMA Inter Building Service & Amenity Best Practices Document refers to this as the Inter-Building Load Factor and Campus or Complex Services is the equivalent of Inter-Building Service Area. Single Occupant Floor Load Factor: The calculated area of Floor, Building, Multi-Floor and Complex or Campus Service Areas that are apportioned to a Single Occupant Floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. The BOMA 2010 Office Standard refers to this as the Load Factor. Multi-Occupant Floor Load Factor: The calculated area of Floor, Building, Multi-Floor and Complex or Campus Service Areas that are apportioned to a Multi-Occupant Floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. The BOMA 2010 Office Standard refers to this as the Load Factor. Floating Load Factor (Single & Multi-Occupant Floors): The actual “Floor by Floor” calculation of all (Floor, Building, Multi-Floor & Complex) prorated services apportioned to each floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. The Load Factor changes or “Floats” from floor to floor as the area of each floor changes. This method of measurement is similar to the BOMA 1996 & BOMA 2010 Method A Office Standards. Average Load Factor (Multi-Occupant Floors Only): The average “Floor by Floor” calculation of all (Floor, Building, Multi-Floor & Complex) prorated services apportioned to each floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. The Multi-Occupant Floating Factor is averaged and then multiplied by the Multi-Occupant Floor Usable Area to calculate the Rentable Area of the floor. This method of measurement is similar to the BOMA 2010 Method B Standard. Note: Single Occupant Floors must use the Single Occupant Floor Floating Load Factor and not the Average to make sure that all floors equal the Total Building Rentable Area. Market Load Factor (Multi-Occupant Floors Only): The average “Floor by Floor” calculation of all (Floor, Building, Multi-Floor & Complex) prorated services apportioned to each floor expressed as a percentage or ratio. A Market factor is established at the sole discretion of the building owner and may be derived from prevailing market conditions. Note: The BOMA 2010 Office Standard only allows a Market Factor to be used if it is lower than the actual average load factor.
The area designed for vehicles next to or adjacent to a Loading Dock.
An elevated platform at an opening of a Building designed for receiving or dispatching goods or equipment.
A term used correctly only in conjunction with the REBNY Standard. This factor converts Usable Area to Rentable Area by the multiplication of the Loss Factor. It may or may not represent the true allocation of building services to the leased space. Functions similarly to the BOMA R/U Ratio but expressed differently. This is factor commonly misinterpreted as the add on factor or R/U ratio.
Major openings in the floor to accommodate vertical building elements such as stairs, elevators, HVAC shafts, atriums and the like. Distinguished from minor vertical penetrations by various rules of thumb (ranging from 64 square inched to 144 square inches, 1 square foot).
Shall mean stairs, elevator shafts, flues, pipe shafts, vertical ducts, and the like, and their enclosing walls. Atria, light wells and similar penetrations above the finished floor are included in this definition. Not included, however, are vertical penetrations built for the private use of a tenant occupying OFFICE AREAs on more than one floor. Structural columns, openings for vertical electric cable or telephone distribution, and openings for plumbing lines are not considered to be Major Vertical Penetrations.
Major Vertical Penetrations have a functional purpose, such as allowing passage of building services (HVAC ducts, flues, chutes, dumb-waiters, plumbing or electrical, etc.), or building access and egress,(stairs, escalators, and elevators, etc.) whereas voids only accommodate the need for certain spaces to be higher than adjacent floors.
A floor opening in excess of 1 square foot (0.1square meter) that serves vertical building systems or vertical occupant circulation functions.
Stairs, elevator shafts, flues, pipe shafts, vertical ducts, and the like, and their enclosing walls, which 3) serve more than one floor of the building, but shall not include stairs, dumbwaiters, lifts, and the like, exclusively serving a tenant occupying offices on more than one floor.
A load factor established at the sole discretion of the ownership of a building.
A horizontal line on the outermost structural or architectural surface of the exterior face of the exterior enclosure of a given floor of a building. In determining the measure line, do not consider overhangs, projecting pilasters or columns, awnings, eaves, cornices, sills, ledges, casing, wainscoting, gutters, downspouts, chimneys, signs, shutters, attached electrical or mechanical systems, decorative or architectural projections and the like that protrude beyond the exterior face of the exterior enclosure.
A horizontal line on the outermost structural or architectural surface of the exterior face of the exterior enclosure, or at the exterior edge of any external circulation, of a given floor of a building. In determining the measure line, do not consider overhangs, pilasters, columns, awnings, eaves, cornices, sills, ledges, casing, wainscoting, gutters, downspouts, chimneys, signs, shutters, attached electrical or mechanical systems, decorative projections and the like that protrude beyond such surface or edge.
This generic term is used by measurement professionals to describe the boundaries that represents the physical polygon that encompasses an area of measurement. A polyline is a connected sequence of line segments to create a single boundary or polygon used to calculate the area within its boundaries to determine the area of calculation.
Inside face of dominate exterior walls of the building. The dominant exterior wall is the wall surface which is greater than 50% of the wall surface measured vertically. Measurement taken to the inside face of exterior walls or window sill where there is no glass or inside face of mullion if there is no sill. All columns or projection to the building are considered as if they were not there.
A metric measure of length equal to about 3.28 feet. A square meter is approximately equal to 10.76 square feet.
The International System of Units (known by the abbreviation SI) used for measurement by the entire world with the only significant exception being the United States of America. For real estate purposes, the USA uses the Imperial System of feet and inches.
The firm or individual who is expert in practices and standards of commercial space measurement.
A floor structure within the exterior walls of a building and between two floors, capable of supporting personnel, equipment, storage or manufacturing. The area of a mezzanine can be limited by codes in certain occupancies to a fraction (like 1/3) of the area of the floor immediately below.
An intermediate level or levels between a floor and the floor or roof immediately above, the aggregate area of which shall not exceed one-third of the floor area of the space in which they are located. The clear height above and below the mezzanine floor construction shall not be less than 7 feet (International Building Code, Section 505.1). Mezzanines are always measured as part of exterior gross area of the floor immediately below.
An intermediate horizontal load bearing structure that is between a floor level and the floor level or roof immediately above. The area of a mezzanine is often constrained by statute to a fraction (usually 1/3) of the area of the floor below. Mezzanines exceeding that fraction constitute full floors. There are three types of mezzanines that are measured as follows: Temporary Mezzanines are non-permanent (built with the intention of being removed or relocated), often tenant improvements, are supported upon the floor but otherwise not part of building structure, and used most frequently (but not exclusively) in retail and industrial occupancy for storage of goods and materials or as part of manufacturing processes. Such mezzanines are not measured as part of exterior gross area or drip line area of a floor or building. Permanent Mezzanines are not built with the intention of being removed and share building systems (HVAC, lighting, power, etc.). In a multi-story building containing elevators, the existence of an elevator stop at a mezzanine indicates that it is permanent. Such mezzanines are always measured as part of exterior gross area or drip line area of the floor immediately below. Unclassified Mezzanines cannot be classified as either temporary or permanent, are included in exterior gross area or drip line area, but are always disclosed when presenting area measurements.
An intermediate or partial story, other than a Catwalk, between the floor levels or roof of a Building and usually fully or partially open on one or more sides.
Is a floor structure within the Exterior Walls capable of supporting offices, warehousing or manufacturing activities, as a function of load-bearing capacity and compliance with applicable building codes governing the purpose for which the Mezzanine was constructed.
The minimum corridor is the shortest possible corridor necessary to provide legal access to the required stairways, elevator lobby, and any common areas, such as restrooms or mechanical areas. The minimum corridor does not include any entryways or extensions to the corridor provided for access to a particular tenant suite.
Space containing elements of a property that serve or benefit more than one use component.
A use component, mixed-use common area, or parking component in a mixed-use property.
The perimeter boundary of a mixed-use component.
Space containing elements of a property that serve or benefit more than one but less than all of the use components of a property.
A property that has a planned integration of some combination of retail, office, industrial, residential, hotel, recreation, or other functions. It is pedestrian-oriented and contains the elements of a live-work-play environment. It maximizes space usage, has amenities and architectural expression and tends to mitigate traffic and sprawl.
Each buildings portion of the Complex Common Area, such as central plan, engineer’s office, etc., is shared between multiple buildings but not all the buildings within the complex.
Those areas which are shared by and apportioned to tenants on two or more (but not all) floors of the building. May include mechanical, electrical rooms, elevator equipment rooms or other services.
The Floor's portion of the Multi-Floor Common areas, such as a shared mechanical room, etc. Multi-Floor Common Share = Total Multi-Floor Common Square Footage X (Net Rentable Area of the floor sharing the Floor Common Area/ Total Net Rentable of all of the floors sharing the Floor Common Area.
A name of a type of space or area that is shared or provide service to multiple (but not all) floors of a single building. A “Multi-Floor Service Share” is that portion of “Multi-Floor Common/Service” area that is allocated to the occupants of the different floors that uses or share the area.
A corridor on a multi-occupant floor that provides required egress for all occupants on the floor as well as access to elevators, fire stairs, refuge areas, restrooms and public areas on the floor, such as building lobbies on an entry level of a building.
A floor on which the Usable or Occupant Area can be leased to more than one tenant or occupant.
Abbreviation for Net Assignable Square Footage. See Net Assignable Area.
This term is used in facilities programming and planning to describe functional areas such as classrooms and laboratories without required building support spaces like circulation, mechanical and structural areas. See also Assignable Area.
A term used in building codes to describe the actual occupied area of a floor, not including accessory unoccupied areas (stairs, elevator & HVAC shafts, mechanical rooms, etc.) or the thickness of walls. (International Building Code)
A term used in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard to express the Interior Gross Area less the areas of all interior walls.
Another term sometimes used in the real estate market for the area or space that is leased without any additional apportionments. It may be equal to Usable area as defined by BOMA. This term is not defined in the BOMA Standards.
Another term used in the real estate market for the space that is rented as the Rentable area. This term is not defined in the BOMA Standards or any major published measurement standard.
The sum of Usable Area & Floor Service Share for a particular suite or area.
Net Rentable Area = Usable Area + Floor Common Share Note: The Net Rentable area is always the same whether the floor is leased to a single tenant or multiple tenants.
Net Rentable Area of all floors in the building= Total Usable Area within the building + Total Floor Common within the building Total Multi-Common Share Note: The Net Rentable area is always the same whether the floor is leased to a single tenant or multiple tenants
A term used in facilities programming and planning as a measure of building efficiency, it is a number less than one, the numerator of which is the Net Assignable Area and the denominator of which is the Gross Area.
A term used in the REBNY Standard to describe the usable area available to a tenant on a multi-tenant floor, excluding corridors.
This applies only to New York City, not the State of New York. (See REBNY Standard)
Non-leasable area is space that cannot be used for common area purposes, for retail purposes by occupants or by property ownership. Non-leasable area is included in exterior gross area (EGA) but is excluded from gross leasable area (GLA). Examples of non-leasable area include, but are not limited to; Electrical substations and utility vaults (either below or above grade) containing equipment owned or operated by a utility company. Communications demark rooms (either below or above grade) containing equipment owned or operated by a communications company. Major vertical penetrations that contain only vertical HVAC shafts, flues, pipe chases and the like that do not directly serve, and cannot be accessed from, adjacent gross leasable area. See definition of major vertical penetration. Trash enclosures that are not common area and also not part of any gross leasable area.
The Non-Rentable and Non-Usable areas of the building not apportioned to all tenants. May include basements, penthouse mechanical rooms and other building service areas that are not being apportioned under the current building measurement method. These Non-Use areas may be converted to Building Common or Service should apportionments change in the future.
The Non-Rentable and Non-Usable areas of a floor that are not apportioned to a floor . Commonly includes, trapped areas or other service areas. Floor Non-Use areas may be converted to Floor Common or Services should apportionments change in the future.
A term developed by Stevenson Systems, Inc., to identify or classify a space or area that is measured but not currently included as part of the Rentable area of multiple buildings. This space or area is measured to provide a more accurate accounting of the total areas the buildings have constructed. Non-Use areas (Enclosed & Unenclosed) are areas that are accounted and documented by Stevenson Systems, Inc.
One who has certain legal rights to, or legal control over, the premises occupied.
(Method A only) the result of multiplying the occupant areas on a floor by the R/U ratio.
A portion of a building where an occupant normally houses personnel, equipment, fixtures, furniture, supplies, goods or merchandise.
Space that is usable by occupants only for storage because of its location and/or because the levels of finish, lighting, power and HVAC are unsuitable for use as office space, and is accounted for separately from the other rentable areas of the building.
A floor opening between two or more adjacent floors created by removal of floor area by or for the occupant that would otherwise be included in the exterior gross area or construction gross area of the floor.
A floor opening between two or more adjacent floors created by removal of occupiable floor area by or for the occupant that would otherwise be included in the exterior gross area or construction gross area of the floor.
A floor opening between two or more adjacent floors created by removal of floor area by or for the occupant that would otherwise be included in the occupant area of the floor level.
Suitable for occupancy by people by virtue of a load bearing floor, building systems, required egress and, if applicable, a Certificate of Occupancy by local authorities having jurisdiction.
A term used by some government agencies to designate the occupied or measure of the area used as the basis upon which they will pay rent. May relate to BOMA definition of Usable area. May be define areas or space that is used for governmental tax calculations .
The premises leased to a tenant for which a measurement is to be computed.
The area or space where a occupants or tenant normally houses personnel and/or furniture, for which a measurement is to be computed.
Enclosed space usable for personnel, furniture, equipment and office support areas, which has suitable finishes, lighting, environmental controls, power, communications support and ceiling heights.
To qualify as finished “Office Area,” an area within the industrial building must be developed at least to the extent of the addition of ALL of the following improvements, whether constructed on the ground floor or the Mezzanine:
The utilization of office space general measured in square feet per person. The measure of this space is usually expressed in Usable Square Feet, however it may also include area not occupied by personnel (i.e. breakrooms, conference rooms, copy areas, etc.)
A number less than one, the numerator of which is the interior gross area (IGA) of a mixed-use common area, and the denominator of which is the exterior gross area (EGA) of that same mixed-use common area.
Term used in real estate to describe a condition where there is no floor that may include physical access to the floor below, as a stair. An example may be a building where the second floor (or mezzanine) provides a view or access to the main lobby below. Absence of a floor where a floor might otherwise be expected to be located, that is typically in the plane as a floor. Examples would be a multi-story atria or lobbies, light wells, auditoria or the area adjacent to a mezzanine.
A term developed by Stevenson Systems, Inc., to describe the minimum legal path necessary for access to and egress from occupant areas, service areas stairs, escalators, elevators, and the like. Similar to BOMA’s 2010 definition of “Base Building Circulation”.
The Optimum Corridor is a measurement and mathematical method used to establish the load factors for a multi-tenant occupancy. The Optimum Corridor are established with minimum length (example: connecting the exit stairs) for normal egress and ingress to suites or occupant areas and include optimum width (example: 5’). This optimum configuration of length and width is generally established at the time of the buildings first occupancy by the building owner/manager and architect/tenant planner. Once the building has established the Optimum Corridor it is applied on all floor of the building. If floors are not able to comply with the Optimum Corridor configuration due to current tenant or occupant locations, the as-built corridor configuration on those floors will be used for load factor calculations.
The application of the use of corridor extension apportioned or assigned to tenants within the building.
An upper floor or roof of a building that extends, protrudes, or is cantilevered above an unenclosed area below.
Is a real estate industries term to mean the drawings that are provided on paper and not on a computer. Most all paper drawings provided today were originally produced by computer programs. Drawings originally produced without the use of computers are generally provided on paper.
A plot of land or air space that can be owned, sold and developed as a unit.
An enclosed, structured floor area used for transient storage of motor vehicles, including associated circulation and building services (such as exhaust fans and ducts that serve the parking area), but not including loading docks, sally ports and building service areas, such as enclosed auxiliary lobbies used to enter a building from parking areas.
That part of the exterior gross area of a building that is used for parking that serves two or more use components of a mixed-use property.
A drawing illustrating the interior partitions within a space or suite. These drawings are generally only graphical depictions the location of the partitions and are not usually used for construction purposes.
A wall that separates two adjacent occupant premises and is located on a lease line.
Enclosed floor area located on the roof level of a building that occupies less than the total area of the roof.
A real estate and architectural term that describes the exterior walls around the perimeter of a building or structure and not the interior walls within the structure. These walls general separate the outside elements for the interior environment.
A Mezzanine that is an integral part of the structure of a Building.
An unenclosed horizontal load bearing floor surface intended for use and located at or near ground level, which constitutes the roof of space below it that is included in construction gross area.
A multisided line that encompasses the boundary of an area or space to be measured enclosed by the line. Sometime referred to a measurement line, it is used by various graphical software products to determine the square footage or square meters of the area within its boundary.
The result of subtracting the areas of the major vertical penetrations, parking and occupant storage on a floor level from the interior gross area of that floor level.
For the purposes of measurement it is the word, included in most leases to describe a occupant, Tenant or Usable Area. The best description of a premises is usually is represented in a graphic lease exhibit showing the boundaries of the area or space of a floor or building that is lease, occupied or owned.
Term used to describe corridors on multi-tenant floors or their functional equivalent for full-floor occupants.
That use which comprises 51% or more of the total exterior gross area of a building, excluding parking in the building.
A building which is designated as a property’s “Principal Structure”, may be so designated by virtue of:
A financial projection of income and expenses used as a basis for securing financing for a property. An important basis for a pro forma is the Rentable area of the property under the measurement standard cited in the lease in addition to the projected rent rates and other factors.
Used in allocating certain expenses to tenants under certain types of leases. A fraction which is sometime used to determine the share of a tenants Rentable area as compared with the total building size. The numerator of which is a tenant's Rentable Area and the denominator of which is the total Rentable Area of the building.
A building (or a parcel therein), integrated multi-building structure, or campus, that is contiguous, undivided, and is owned and generally managed by a single legal entity.
Comprises Users, Service Providers and Third Parties.
A condition where the elevation of a floor on the interior of the perimeter of a side of a building is approximately the same as the elevation of an unenclosed public walking surface (such as a sidewalk) on the exterior side of the same side of the building, and significant public pedestrian traffic normally occurs along such exterior walking surface.
(BOMA, Method A only) A ratio, the numerator of which is the building total preliminary floor area of a building and the denominator of which is building total occupant + allocated area, that distributes building service areas and building amenity areas (including its proportionate share of floor service areas) to all occupants of the building on a proportional basis.
Also known as “FACTOR” or “ADD-ON” Factor (see Factor and Add On Factor) Allocates Common Areas to Usable Areas and Basic Rentable Areas. A figure greater than one, the numerator of which is Rentable Area and the denominator of which is Usable Area. There are Floor R/U Ratios, Building R/U Ratios and occasionally Multi Floor and Campus R/U Ratios. This is often incorrectly called an R/U Factor, and is sometimes referred to as an Add-on Factor, Common Area Factor, Loss Factor, Load Factor, Gross-up Factor or Partial Floor Factor.
(BOMA 2010, Method A) A ratio, the numerator of which is the preliminary floor area of a floor, and the denominator of which is the usable area of that floor, that distributes floor service areas to the occupants on a floor on a proportional basis.
Titled “The Recommended Method of Floor Measurement for Office Buildings,” published by the REBNY. Realtor’s Board members quoting square footages must use this standard, and it is used only in New York City and nearby areas of New York, Connecticut and New Jersey.
The drawings used to document all changes made to the drawings during construction. These are different from as-built drawings in that they do not document what was actually constructed. They are the "record" set of drawings documenting the all changes.
A rebate of rent by the landlord to a tenant or occupant as a concession during the leasing process.
A listing of the tenant and vacant suites in a building. Generally listing the tenant names, floor, suite number, square footage leased and other pertinent information used by building owner and management.
That area determined as rentable using Method A (Exterior Enclosure Method) described in Section A of this Standard or using Method B (Drip Line Method) described in Section B of this Standard.
Because of dissimilarities among buildings, calculations of rentable area may vary. If requested, owners should disclose to prospective tenants the loss factor used for spaces under consideration.
This method measures the tenant's pro rata portion of the entire office floor, excluding elements of the building that penetrate through the floor to areas below. The Rentable Area of a floor is fixed for the life of a building and is not affected by changes in corridor sizes or configuration. This method is therefore recommended for measuring the total income producing area of a building and for use in computing the tenant's pro rata share of a building for purposes of rent escalation. Lenders, architects and appraisers will use Rentable Area in analyzing the economic potential of a building.
In general the Rentable area of a building includes all the areas of a building measured within a predetermined boundary as in BOMA'S Interior Gross Area (IGA) and generally excluding Major Vertical Penetrations. Usable Area multiplied by R/U Ratio.
The product of the occupant + allocated area of an occupant or floor level times the R/O ratio of the building. This may also be calculated as the product of the occupant area of an occupant or floor level times the load factor A for that floor level.
The product of multiplying the occupant area of an occupant or floor level times the load factor B of the building.
Of an office area, store area or Building Common Area shall mean the Usable area of that office, store area or Building Common Area and its share of the Floor Common Areas on that floor. Basic Rentable Area is determined by multiplying the Usable area of that office area, store area or Building Common Area by the Floor R/U Ratio. The total Basic Rentable Area of a tenant occupying more than one floor shall be the sum of its Basic Rentable Areas on each floor. The total of all Basic Rentable Areas on a floor shall equal the Floor Rentable Area of that same floor.
Shall equal the sum of all the floor Rentable areas.
A term used to describe the result of subtracting Major Vertical Penetrations from Gross Measured Area on a floor. This is different than the Rentable Area of the floor, which may include a pro-rata portion of other Common Area.
Shall mean the result of subtracting from the BOMA's Gross measured Area of a floor the Major Vertical Penetrations on that same floor. It is generally fixed for the life of the building and is rarely affected by changes in corridor size or configuration.
A measured and calculated area of a building whereupon the square footage number generated is equal to all the measured areas of a building as Rentable square footage, excluding major vertical penetrations. The Maximum Rentable of the building may included areas that are not normally included as Rentable area (decks, patios, overhangs, storage areas, etc.). This number is for reference and companion only and not generally used for leasing purposes.
The Total Area Measured of the Building less Floor Penetrations, Enclosed Non-Rentable Area and Unenclosed Non-Rentable Area. The BOMA 2010 Office Standard refers to this Area as Preliminary Floor Area. No apportionment of common or services areas are performed for this calculation.
Is any Storage Mezzanine which is expressly agreed by the parties to be included in the Gross Building Area OR any Finished Mezzanine.
Once the Rentable on a floor has been established it is “fixed” (not to change). The floor factor will therefore change to compensate for any changes to the corridor size (length & width) that affects the Usable area of the floor. With the factor changes to compensate for the changes in Usable area, the Rentable of the floor will be maintained at a fixed square footage.
A portion of an occupant area that does not meet the requirement of the International Building Code for minimum ceiling heights.
Space that has a clear ceiling height of less than 7’-0” (approximately 213 cm)
Space that does not meet the requirement of the International Building Code section 1208.2 Minimum Ceiling Heights, including subsections thereof.
A portion of an occupant area that does not meet the requirements of the current International Building Code for minimum ceiling heights.
A term used in the GWCAR Standard to define Store Area, but can also include certain exterior areas such as outside dining for restaurants or carryout food establishments, or a portion of the main building lobby.
Big box - A physically large retail establishment usually part of a chain. A big box occupant may be an anchor to a shopping center or a free-standing independent entity. Outparcel or pad tenant– A usually free-standing parcel, located on a separated or separable lot from the retail development. Enclosed mall – An enclosed mall has a walkway or mall that is enclosed, heated and cooled, insulated and lighted. The mall concourse is flanked on one or both sides by inward–facing stores. The configuration of the mall may vary, but on-site parking is usually provided around the perimeter of the building. Open air center or strip center or convenience center – Attached row of stores or service outlets managed as a coherent retail entity, with on-site parking usually located in front of the stores. Open canopies may connect the storefronts, but a strip center does not have enclosed walkways. Life style center – Upscale national-chain specialty stores with dining and entertainment in an outdoor setting. Mix use development - A real estate project with a planned integration of some combination of retail, office, residential, hotel, recreation or other functions. It is pedestrian-oriented and contains elements of a live-work-play environment. It maximizes space usage, has amenities and architectural expression and tends to mitigate traffic and sprawl.
That portion of exterior gross area of a retail building that is not used for parking.
A movable, pre-fabricated unit that affords the occupant the ability to conduct business from different locations due to its mobility. An RMU cannot be physically occupied and is often considered an amenity to a common area. The area occupied by an RMU is not included in gross leasable area.
Generally measured to the building line (where street frontage exists), to the inner surface of the remaining outer building walls, to the tenant side of corridors and other permanent partitions, and to the center of partitions that separate the area from adjoining tenants. Typically, no addition is made for bay windows extending outside the building line, and no deduction is made for vestibules inside the building line.
A permanent exterior enclosure oriented more than 15° from vertical with its exterior side oriented upward that encloses the interior of the building below it, affording protection from the elements appropriate to the occupancy and the local climate.
An unenclosed horizontal roof (other than a plaza), or portion thereof, with a load bearing surface intended for use by occupants along with other appropriate and required features such as railings.
Used in Great Britain. A London-based standards and membership organizations for professionals involved in land, valuation, real estate, construction and environmental issues. Titled “The Code of Measuring Practice, a Guide for Surveyors and Valuers,” published by the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS).
A graduated instrument that allows a measurer to determine linear distances from paper floor plans that are drawn to scale for the purpose of calculating floor areas. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as a “ruler.” Also known as a ratio between the drawing of a floor and the size of the actual floor it represents. Most commercial buildings are drawn at a scale of 1/8” = 1’-0”, called “eighth inch scale”.
Drawings that represent the full size of a building presented in a scale to be practical for use by contractors and other working with a building. (see Scale)
Drawings that are produced from other drawings, copied or not created using original drawing information. These drawings are rarely of the quality that can be used for measurement purposes.
Refers to corridors and walkways within the Usable Area of a tenant or department required for access and egress to/from all Assignable Areas.
The sum of service area and amenity area on any given floor level of a building.
A portion of a building that provides services that enables occupants to work in the building.
Any entity providing real estate advice to a User Including, but not limited to, Valuers, Surveyors, facility managers, property managers, asset managers, agents and brokers, Space Measurement Professionals, cost consultants, interior designers and architects.
Detailed, accurate drawings produced by individual trades from which a building is actually constructed. Shop drawings are the most reliable source of dimensional information short of field dimensions.
A floor which is leased to a single tenant or occupant.
Improvements such as infrastructure, sidewalks, driveways, on-grade parking, landscaping, drainage structures, retail dining patios and garden centers, amphitheaters, helipads and many similar features, that are not measured as part of a building.
A system created by Peter Stevenson founder of Stevenson Systems, Inc., that documents the use and/or allocation of measured areas by applying appropriate measurement standard(s) throughout the lifecycle of a property.
An analytical method developed by Stevenson Systems, Inc. to document, classify and evaluating the measure med area for a specific building or project.
A system that determines and tracks space occupancy, density and utilization by department and division within an organization for the purpose of optimizing space utilization and minimizing occupancy costs. Square footage figures from these systems drive chargeback systems.
A Service Provider qualified by experience or training to measure Buildings in accordance with IPMS.
The process of translating a spacial requirements from programed or numerical data into a physical layout or floor plan that satisfies an occupants needs in terms of square footage, adjacencies, circulation, workflow, equipment, capacity for growth and many other criteria.
A document specifying the comprehensive facilities requirements of a user of space. A significant part of a program is the Space Requirements Projection. Also called a Facilities Program.
A projection of the Usable Area needed by an occupant at one time or future time horizons. It is often based upon space standards, a detailed space inventory and circulation factors. When done for tenants, it usually assumes that basic building services (toilets, fan rooms, and the like) are part of the base building and are therefore excluded from the program.
A standard of documentation defining the allocation of square footage required to each position or function within an organization. It is used as a basis for doing space requirements projections, space planning and a tool to control growth and future need of a organization.
A written segment of the Construction Documents that sets out requirements for materials, equipment, construction systems, standards, quality as well as standards for construction services required to produce the work. Occasionally there will be information in the specification "specs" of interest to a person providing spaces account and building measurements.
A square unit of area measuring twelve inches on each of its four sides. It is the fundamental unit of measurement or metrics used to determine values, costs, operations and maintenance of commercial structures. It also used do determine the operation efficiencies of commercial properties as in the amount of energy, waist, water and emissions that are generated by a commercial structure.
A bar chart that uses a graphical representation of a building by floor as a horizontal bar, also called a "Stacking plan" indicate the location, square footage occupied by each tenant, department or vacancies within a building. These charts or plans also can contain other pertinent leasing, operations and financial information about the building and its occupants.
A two-dimensional chart or graphical representation of the building, usually shown as an “elevation”, or side-view containing to essential tenant or occupant information used in leasing and managing the leasable areas with in the building. Such information can include but is not limited to tenant names, suite numbers, rent rolls, lease expiration, vacancies, and square footage analytics. First introduced in coordination with Space Accounting and building measurement by Stevenson Systems in 1988.
Any mezzanine that is not adjacent to an exterior enclosure (Method A) or drip line (Method B).
Those parts of a Building providing shared or common facilities that typically do not change over time, including, for example, stairs, escalators, lifts/elevators and motor rooms, toilets, cleaners’ cupboards, plant rooms, fire refugee areas and maintenance rooms. See Common Facilities.
The Standards Setting Committee appointed by the IPMSC to develop global standards for property measurement.
Space suitable only for the storage of materials and equipment and not for use by personnel, by virtue of inadequate lighting, finishes, environmental controls, power, access, egress or ceiling height.
Any mezzanine constructed in accordance with applicable building codes, other than a finished mezzanine.
Shall mean the area of an office building suitable for retail occupancy. Store areas are included in Floor Rentable Area and Rentable Area.
This method measures the ground floor Rentable Area of an office building for occupancy as store space.
A term associated with retail space, it is generally used to describe the structure that establishes the front of the retail establishment.
The process of crafting a facilities plan for an organization that integrates and supports its business plans while minimizing occupancy costs. A good space management system is a foundation for an SFP.
The structural supports both outside and inside the building structure. Depending on their location they my have an effect on the measured are of a building or occupied space.
A construction that provides shelter or serves as an ancillary function, but is not necessarily fully enclosed.
A drawing showing the location of the occupant of a floor with in the building, identifying the suite and may show the interior partitions and key map.
In a space requirements projection, it is space for functions other than workstations occupied by staff. Includes areas such as conference rooms, filing areas and reception spaces but does not include primary or secondary circulation space.
A Mezzanine that is not an integral part of the structure of a Building.
Space that is used exclusively by a tenant for their personnel, furniture, equipment, storage, support and processes. May be applied to any type of commercial asset (office, industrial retail, etc.) and can be measured in many different ways.
A drawing that delineates the location of a prospective tenant’s suite while the lease is being negotiated. It includes the perspective tenant square footage calculation of the tenant suite as a "Preliminary" tenant Log. This document may include other information and calculation pertinent to building owner’s needs. Once a lease is signed the preliminary Tenant log becomes a "Final" Tenant log and the document becomes part of the lease documentation.
A tern coined by Stevenson Systems, Inc. in 1988 to track the activity of tenants vacating and occupying space within a building. Typically the log is accompanied by a drawing showing the location of the space occupied or vacated and lease information associated with the space or occupant area.
Space allowing flow of people through assignable spaces. For example, a file room may include an aisle that not only allows for opening of file drawers but also passage of staff through the file room to other assignable spaces.
Document published by The American Institute of Architects (AIA) titled “Methods of Calculating Areas and Volumes of Buildings”
The International Facility Manager’s Association.
An organization that collaborated with BOMA in development of the BOMA Industrial Measurement Standard.
Any entity other than a User or Service Provider with an interest in property measurement including, but not limited to, governments, banks, other property financing bodies, data analysts and researchers.
The difference between an area calculation made by an individual and the actual area of a subject space, floor or building. If the Tolerance is 1%, then two individual’s area calculations will always be within 2% of each other (one could be 1% high and the other 1% low).
Generally to mean the total of all enclosed and unenclosed areas quantified and measured within a measurement report.
A floor within a high-rise building where multiple banks of elevator come together and a passengers can "transfer" from one elevator bank to another to access other floors in the building.
A set of stairs within a building where a stairway "transfers" horizontally to another set of stairs to exit the building or access another floor.
Areas that are within the building perimeter of a retail building but are outside the measure line, exclusive of voids.
This are unenclosed areas that are for the use, accessed by and maintained for the benefit of the occupants and are not recognized as under BOMA 2010 Standards as Rentable Area. These areas may include but are not limited to private & public balconies, covered connectors, decks, terraces, trash enclosures, overhangs, loading areas, rooftop mechanical, cooling towers, etc.
An opening in the exterior enclosure of a building, which is used for access to or egress from the building but does not have a door that is normally closed.
(Method A only) the total of occupant area and building amenity area on any floor level, and for the building.
Shall mean the measured area of an office area, store area or Building Common area on a floor. The total of all the Usable areas for a floor shall equal Floor Usable area of that same floor.
Fully-enclosed space that is available for the exclusive use of a building occupant for personnel, materials, furniture, fixtures and equipment. Different standards measure this in different ways. Referred to in leases as The Premises.
A portion of a building where an occupant normally houses personnel, equipment, fixtures, furniture, supplies, goods or merchandise. The BOMA 2010 definition of Usable Area is the total of Occupant Area and Building Amenity Area; however, most buildings do not have Building Amenity Classification so Usable Area and Occupant Area will usually be the same number. Single Occupant Floors have effective use of the elevator lobby and any areas that would be required for corridors (hypothetical corridor) on multi-occupant floors so those areas are included in usable area for single occupant floors. Multi-Occupant Floor: The elevator lobby and hypothetical corridor are classified as Floor Service Areas on Multi-Occupant Floors.
This method measures the actual occupiable area of a floor or an office suite and is of prime interest to a tenant in evaluating the space offered by a landlord and in allocating the space required to house personnel and furniture. The amount of Usable Area on a multi-tenant floor can vary over the life of a building as corridors expand and contract and as floors are remodeled. Usable Area on a floor can be converted to Rentable Area by the use of a conversion factor.
Shall mean the sum of Usable areas of office area, store areas and Building Common Areas of a floor. The amount of Floor Usable Area can vary over the life of a building as corridors expand and contract and as floors are remodeled.
A term used by the BOMA Office Standard connoting the sum of Office, Store and Building Common Areas on a floor. Also used by Stevenson Systems Inc. as the gross area of a floor minus major vertical penetrations and all common services.
First, calculate the usable area as if for a single tenant floor. Then deduct corridor areas, including toilets, supply room, etc., but do not deduct the enclosing walls of such corridor. Measure the net usable area of each space on the floor by measuring each enclosing wall which is a building exterior wall to the outside surface of the exterior wall, or to the outside surface of the glass as the case may be. Measure demising wall to the center and walls which about corridors to the corridor side of the finished surface of the corridor wall. To determine the usable area on a multiple tenant floor, apportion the corridor area to each space by multiplying the corridor area by a fraction, whose numerator is the net usable area of the space and whose denominator is the total of the net usable areas of all the spaces on the floor, and add the result to the net usable area of the space.
Measure the floor to the outside surface of the building. Subtract from this area the following, including the finished enclosed walls: -Public elevator shafts and elevator machines and their enclosing walls. -Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning facilities (including pipes, ducts and shafts) and their enclosing walls, unless such equipment, mechanical room space, or shafts serve the floor in question. -Fire towers and fire tower courts and their enclosing walls. -Main telephone equipment rooms and main electric switchgear rooms, except that telephone equipment, and electric switchgear rooms serving the floor exclusively shall not be subtracted.
The actual Usable area a tenant occupies on a floor within the boundaries of their enclosing walls. The Suite Usable Area does not include any corridor extensions or areas outside the suite (Exception: Corridor setbacks for door swings are usually included in Suite Usable). Suite Usable Area is normally measured to the centerline of demising walls between tenants, the inside surface of the perimeter walls, and the tenant side of the core walls.
Office, retail, industrial or multi-unit residential space as measured by their respective BOMA Standards, or a use for which BOMA does not publish a measurement standard, including, but not limited to, agricultural, single family residential, hospitality (hotels, motels, etc.), entertainment (theatres, casinos, stadiums, etc.), institutional (hospitals, etc.), educational, civic (museums, courthouses, jails, etc.), religious, and transit (airports, train stations, etc.) space.
A portion of a mixed-use property that is occupied by a single homogeneous use. A use component may include an ancillary use. In a property that consists of multiple buildings (including integrated multi-building structures), a single building may also be a use component or a sub use component.
An owner-occupier, developer, investor, purchaser, vendor, landlord or tenant.
There are two types of vacancies. A space or suite that is not leased or a space of suite that is not occupied but are still rented by tenants under a lease. In real estate economic surveys, the Vacancy Factor usually refers to floor areas that are not leased. Space that is under a lease but not occupied is called Shadow Space.
A Service Provider with an appropriate professional qualification in valuation or appraisal.
The difference between two area calculations of a suite, floor or building area made by two individuals. The area calculation of a building owner is deemed accurate if the variance between their area calculation and that of another party is less than 2% .
It is common for a floor area calculated from the building plans (paper plans or CAD) to differ from the floor area measured on site using field measurements. It is also common for the field measurement and calculation of floor area by one party to differ from the same field measurement and calculation by another party. The calculation of a floor area, resulting from field measurement by the building owner or manager, is deemed accurate if a re-measurement gives results with variance of two percent (2%) or less. If the variance is greater than two percent (2%), BOMA International recommends that an unbiased professional third party be sought to assist in resolving the matter.
Sub-grade space that is enclosed and contiguous to a basement that extends below the adjacent ground plane past the property line, often under a public right-of-way, such as a sidewalk or alley.
In common interest communities, any boundary of a unit that is not a horizontal boundary.
Vertical Penetrations include stairs, lift/elevator shafts and ducts but any penetration of less than 0.25m2 is to be disregarded.
Each part of a window, wall or external construction feature of an office Building where the inside finished surface area varies from the inside finished surface area of the adjoining window, wall or external construction feature, ignoring the existence of any columns.
Absence of a floor within the exterior enclosure of a building in excess of ten square feet (1 square meter) where a floor might otherwise be expected or measured, that is typically in the plane of the upper floors adjacent to multi-story atria or lobbies, light wells, auditoria or the area adjacent to a partial floor, permanent mezzanine or unclassified mezzanine at a given floor level.
Absence of a floor where a floor might otherwise be expected or measured, that is typically in the plane of the upper floor levels of multi-story atria or lobbies, light wells, auditoria or the area adjacent to a mezzanine.
A portion of an enclosed floor area that is open to the floor below. Used in the International Facility Management Association.
An area that is fully enclosed or trapped between other services, rooms or walls within a building and occupy floor area. Void spaces have floors within them and are not penetrations or shafts. These areas are generally represent architectural furring of walls, double walls, column bracing, false columns or facades, etc. These areas may be included as usable or apportioned as common area depending on their location and proximity to the area they adjoin on the floor.
See GWCAR Standard. This refers to Washington DC, not the State of Washington.
Graphic depictions of a building on paper or CAD, prepared as the basis for a construction contract. Includes floor plans at multiple scales, building and wall sections, details and schedules, as well as architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical drawings. They do not reflect changes made during construction unless stamped “As-built” or “Record Drawings.” Sometimes referred to as Construction Drawings or CDs. See Construction Documents (CDs).
A desk area that may built-in or furniture that is designed to provide work space within an open area of a floor. Workstations that are furniture are sometimes called "cubical" come in a variety of sizes and shapes depending on the need. Work stations as furniture have the advantage in that they can be reconfigured or moved with little on no construction requirement. Generally work stations have no effect on building square footage calculations other than occupancies requirements.
We provide strategies that maximize asset value and increase revenue over the life of a property.
Our in-depth analyses provide you with market insight and ability to spot trends and opportunities.
Our comprehensive reports give you true insight into the performance of your building.
As co-authors of global measurement standards, we help you select the best standard for your asset.
© Stevenson Systems 2016